Description: Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introduction of archaeological record of southern Levant (ancient Israel) from Bronze Age through Achaemenid Period (ca. 2500-332 BC) in combination with current understandings of genre, authorship, and historical value of Hebrew Bible. Ancient Israelite identities are traced through combination of archaeological and textual sources. Social, religious, and political traditions of ancient Israel and Judah are interpreted in context of both earlier Bronze Age traditions and Israel's Iron Age neighbors. Archaeological and textual data for identities, such as Amorites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, and Babylonians, form basis for evaluating construction and maintenance of various biblical identities. Introduction to theoretical and methodological issues involving historical archaeology of ancient Israel and Levant, and possibilities for investigating negotiation of identity in archaeological record. P/NP or letter grading.