Description: (Same as Psychiatry M232.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 200A. Selection bias, confounding, ecological paradox, contributions of Fisher and Neyman. Rubin model for causal inference, propensity scores. Analysis of clinical trials with noncompliance. Addressing confounding in longitudinal studies. Path analysis, structural equation, and graphical models. Decision making when causality is disputed. Letter grading.