Description: Lecture, three hours. Requisites: course 111B, Life Sciences 7A, 7B, 7C. Investigation of biological origins of sex differences in physiology (mostly vertebrate), and susceptibility to disease, including history of development of concepts to define sex, and interface between biological factors and effects of gendered environments. Topics include evolution of sex chromosomes, molecular and environmental determination of gonadal type, dosage compensation, gonadal steroid hormone effects on tissues, physiology of reproduction as it applies to sex differences, interaction of genetic and environmental factors in differentiation of two sexes, defining sex and gender, gendered environments and their influence on physiology, and politics of financial support for research of sex and gender differences in disease. Concurrently scheduled with course C130. Letter grading.